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Panaretos, Michael (1320-ca.1390):Chronicler of the Grand Komnenoi of the Empire of Trebizond. He was a protosebastos and protonotarios in the service of Alexios III Komnenos, and his chronicle is the only direct source for the history of the Empire of Trebizond.
Partitio Romaniae: The document of the treaty signed by the Latins of the Fourth Crusade, that is by a committee of twelve Venetians and twelve Franks, between 12 April and 9 May 1204, and establishing the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
Patriarchal School (or Patriarchal Academy): The terms are modern and are used to describe an academic institution founded by Alexios I Komnenos in 1107 in Constantinople. It was located in the church of Hagia Sophia. Originally the subject taught was theology but after the middle of the 12th century rhetoric was added as well. The didaskaloi (teachers) were deacons of Hagia Sophia.
Patriarchate: The term was originally attributed to the most prominent and respectable members of an episcopate. In the 6th century, Justinian established the five sees (Patriarchates) comprising the administrative authority (pentarchy) of the Byzantine Church: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. The number of Patriarchates later increased.
Pediasimos, John (ca. 1250- beginning of 14th century): Teacher and writer, known also by the name of Pothos. After he had studied, together with Gregory of Cyprus, under Manuel Holobolos and George Akropolites, he was made hypatos ton philosophon. He also taught at Ohrid, where he was appointed chartophylax around 1280. He wrote many works on mythology, syllogistics, geometry, music, astronomy and medicine.
Pepagomenos, Demetrios (1st half of 15th century):Doctor and writer, member of the eminent Pepagomenos family. He worked as a doctor in Constantinople and corresponded with John Chortasmenos, John Eugenikos and Bessarion. He wrote works on medicine, veterinary medicine and rhetoric.
Peristyle:a portico which encloses a building perimetrically.
Peter I:King of Cyprus (1358-69).
Peter IV:King of Aragon (1336-87), son of Alfonso IV. He was a lover of letters and of Greek antiquity.
Peter of Courtenay:Latin emperor of Constantinople (1217-ca. 1219).
Peter the Iberian:Georgian monk who lived in the 5th century.
Philadelphia: The easternmost Byzantine city in Lydia of Asia Minor, or as it is called today, Alasehir. Because it was situated near the borders, it was on the crossroads of trade routes, and became a centre of commerce with Italian colonies and a centre for the production of leather goods and red silk. Surviving today ar extensive remains of its long, solid walls, built in the 3rd, 12th and 13th centuries, as well as the ruins of a church of Justinian's reign.
Philanthropos Soter Monastery: One of the biggest monasteries of the 14th century in Constantinople, located between the Mangana palace and the sea walls of the city. It was restored by Irene Choumnaina and housed 100 nuns. Choumnaina was the abbess of the monastery, and her parents also sought refuge there in their old age.
Philip Courtenay:Son of the last Latin emperor of Constantinople, Baldwin II (1288-61).
Philotheos Kokkinos: Metropolitan in Herakleia of Thrace and Patriarch of Constantinople (1353-55 and 1364-76). He was a fervent supporter of Palamas as well as of John VI Kantakouzenos. His second patriarchate is associated with the canonisation of Gregory Palamas. His beliefs are expressed in the written works he left behind: homiletic, dogmatic, liturgical and hagiographical.
Philes, Manuel (ca. 1275-1345): An Ephesian, and a poet at the imperial court of Andronikos II and Andronikos III Palaiologos . He was a pupil of George Pachymeres and wrote poems of various kinds (didactic, panegyric,epitaphs, historic and others) which reflect his close relationship to the imperial family, the aristocracy (the Melissenoi, among others) and the patriarch.
Planoudes, Maximos (ca. 1255-1305):Scholar and translator from Nikomedeia. He began his career as a copyist of manuscripts and scribe at the palace. Later he taught at the Schools of the Chora monastery and the Christ Akataleptos monastery in Constantinople. He translated Latin works (theological and secular), while among his contributions are works of literature, mathematical works and an anthology of epigrams.
Possession:The right of an individual to receive income from the cultivation of land without being its owner.
Principality of Achaia: Frankish feudal state created in the Peloponnese after the conquest of Constantinople by the crusaders (1205). It was at its zenith during the years of William Villehardouin. After the battle of Pelagonia (1259) in which the Franks were defeated, the Byzantines gradually recovered the Peloponnese.
Prodromos, Theodore:Poet at the court of Irene Doukaina and John II.
Pronoiarios: Holder of a pronoia.
Protekdikos: The head of a group of judges (the ekdikoi) attached to Hagia Sophia. Its responsibility was to protect those who sought asylum in the church of Hagia Sophia, such as debtors, slaves or murder suspects. The tribunal listened to their confession and accordingly defined some penalty (the epitimia) in expiation.
Protosebastos: Title created by Alexios I Komnenos. In the 12th century it was given to close collaborators of the emperor and to members of noble families such as the Palaiologoi, the Raouls, the Tarchaneiotes and Metochites families.
Protovestiarios:Honorary title given to high-ranking officials as well as to future emperors during this period who originally were responsible for the imperial wardrobe. In the 9th-11th centuries the protovestiarios could lead an army or be entrusted with negotiations with foreign states.
Protovestiarites: Chief of the imperial bodyguard (the vestiaritai).
Pseudo-Dionysios Aeropagites: Pseudonym of the anonymous writer of a collection of theological works written around 500.
Pseudo-Kodinos:Conventional name of the anonymous author of the Treatise on the Dignities and Offices, written between 1347 and 1368 and presenting the hierarchy of the palace functionaries, and a description of their costumes, as well as of the feasts celebrated etc. Also by this author are the book Patria of Constantinople as well as a chronicle ending in 1453.
Pyxis:A small cylindrical box with a cover.