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Francesco I Gattilusio: Genose adventurer, ruler of Lesbos (1355-84) and the founder of the Gattilusi dynasty in Greece.
Frankish states: these were the state of Attica and Boeotia under the Burgundian prince Otto de la Roche, as well as the principality of Achaia under Geoffrey Villehardouin.
Frederick II Hohenstaufen: King of Sicily (1198-1250) and German emperor (1212-50). He maintained an amicable relationship with the emperors of Nicaea. As a patron of Byzantine scholars, he contributed to the florescence of Greek literature in Southern Italy, centred around the monastery of Saint Nicholas di Casole.