The Newer State: thoughts of intellectuals concerning the state and society

The following excerpt was published in the newspaper Eleftheron Vima on 4 November 1923 and is the work of economist Dim. Kalitsounakis. In the opinion of the writer, then general secretary of the ministry of National Economy, tendencies towards 'social' corporatism, a notion that will later have an impact on intellectual circles in both Greece and Europe, can be discerned.
[Cited by Ant. Liakos in Ergasia kai Politiki stin Ellada tou Mesopolemou].

'The world war [...] brought about [...] profound changes in the character of newer European States. The Bolshevic revolution, and the collapse of three Empires in central and eastern Europe, created new types of constitutions, compared to which not only the types of monarchy with "divine right", but also the "western European democracy" types seem antiquated. The two remaining Mediterranean Kingdoms, Spain and Italy, inherently bore the mortal blow, because they did not manage finally to resolve the social issue that today troubles the newer states, that is, the issue of the industrial worker. In the face of these difficulties, which they cannot overcome, they resort to the dictatorial authority of the military state. But there is not a single example from history in which social issues were resolved by military intervention. [...] At this point in history, the duty of those managing ordinary affairs is to discern the psychological forces disturbing the nation, which have originated either from an external influence, from the terrible international changes, or from internal ones, from the irresponsible personal management of various authorities, or ultimately from a combination of both, and direct them along the path of legality, to invest them with prestige and place them at the service of the newly established type of constitution. Only through this type, that is, through using the soul and will of the people, is it possible to found with authority the future constitution that will also clearly be in a position to confront the social issue through its political and new economic organizations according to professional bodies. [...] I think that to experiment with the improvement of older types would have little effect in this day and age. The ancient form of the European State is today dying. We do not need to passionately aspire to the old type while being harassed by the present. We must proceed courageously towards the creation of a newer constitution.'