The living conditions of the population

During the inter-war period, living conditions for the greater part of the population were hard. The landless farmers and refugees of rural origin continued the struggle for their resettlement mainly in the territories of Macedonia. Undoubtedly, the breaking up of holdings and more general difficulties (property status, methods of cultivation etc.), aggravated the hardships of rural life.
On the other hand, the lower urban classes of the cities (workers and refugees) frequently depended for their survival on municipal soup kitchens. Poverty in the cities was harsher than in rural areas, where at least they could supplement their meagre income by home consumption or multiple employment.
Strikes and labour mobilizations of every kind characterized the first undisturbed period of the democratic constitution (until 1926). The dictatorial period of governorship under Theodoros Pangalos (1925-26) would be an exception. The latter, sometimes through impressive acts (hanging those who embezzled public money), sometimes through absurd measures (restricting skirt lengths), endeavoured to turn public opinion in his favour. Despite his view 'I gain my strength from the confidence the army has in my presence', the personal authority he had imposed did not thrive. Economic problems became worse and popular discontent grew, resulting in his downfall.