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Mission Impossible. Mapping the Classical Web: A Meta-Guide Through the Classical Link Collections
(Athanasios Sideris, Issue 1 / 2001)

Classical Antiquity became, very early on, one of the fields that attracted the interest of people dealing with the Internet and the creation of web pages dedicated to culture and history. Undoubtedly this was to be expected, as Classical Antiquity still represents a crucial and thorny question for Western society. The relationship of the modern Westerner to the culture of Greece and Rome embodies the culmination of complex proceedings and concepts, which can be traced back to the age of Enlightment, to the Renaissance and even to the Antiquity itself. All the various explanations of this relationship, its ceaseless redefinitions and inevitable refutations do nothing but reaffirm its fundamental position in the structure of Western thought.

Much has been written about this subject, both laudatory and pejorative. It should come as no surprise, therefore, that from a very early stage, Classicists were intrigued by the New Technologies and were more flexible in their approach than most of their colleagues in the Humanities1. It has been argued that this position owes much to Classical Archaeologists, who had for long been accustomed to the intrusion of technology in the adyton of their discipline2; indeed, geophysical methods of survey, radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence dating and other techniques have been increasingly adopted since the fifties.

Whatever it was that influenced Classicists, the fact is that after a brief period of theoretical considerations about the use of the new medium3, the web became a tool in the service of teachers and students, excavators and researchers who used it to publish their original studies. In the beginning the ratio between relevant scholarly material and "garbage" on the web was heartbreaking. But nowadays a huge quantity of primary sources (ancient authors, inscriptions, coins, excavation reports), many reference works (i.e. PECS, Liddel-Scott, Suida, Leake's Northern Greece, etc.), and an ever-growing number of scholarly publications are already available4. Navigation on the web became easier but finding what you are looking for remains, in some aspects, a Herculean task. Indexes of available material were helpful, the first of which were issued only in printed version. The best of them soon moved from the printed page to the screen5. Thus appeared indexes on art and architecture, on military history, on gender studies, on museums and collections and many other topics. Private people first and, soon after, academic institutions created and maintained general indexes on Antiquity or the Classics that are usually called "link lists" or "gateways". The more explanatory such tools are the more useful they become, since the user needs to know not only where information relative to his search can be found but also what exactly he may expect there. The best indexes, some of which still appear in printed version, feature a comment for each site mentioned, often followed by the contents6.

Indexes that citie only other indexes instead of giving any information are called meta-indexes or meta-guides. They can be very helpful for beginners and for people searching for an unfamiliar topic, but let's not forget that "it is easy to surf around in them and never come across any real data"7.

What follows is such a meta-guide. It is addressed to people seeking pre-selected and organized material on the classical civilisations of Greece and Rome. During the last year the author has visited each of the gateways listed here but the links were last checked on the date appearing next to the electronic address. The choices of this list were only partially dictated by scholarly criteria, since need for technique reliability, efficient design and personal taste also raised their claims. Such choices, even coming from a long-addicted data web user, may have limited interest beyond their practical timesaving value.

Gateways on Classical Antiquity

Academic Departments

Aiolos - Klassiek Cultuurgebied (17.02.2000)

This guide is compiled and maintained by R.L. Hunsucker. It is frequently updated and there are commentaries on each link but... in Dutch. Aiolos comprises three main sections with several subdivisions:

Algemene bronnen (General Resources): Oriënterende en meta-diensten (Orientation Pages), Bibliotheekcatalogi (Library Catalogues on line), Bibliografische diensten en bestanden (Bibliographies), Uitgeverijen / boekhandel (Publishing Houses and Bookshops), Andere instellingen (Other Stuff), Tekstbestanden enz. (Text Archives).

Vakspecialistische bronnen (Special Resources): Klassieke oudheid i.h.a. (Classical Antiquity in general), Handschriftkunde (Palaeography), Wijsbegeerte v.d. klassieke oudheid (History of Ancient Philosophy), Godsdienstgeschiedenis (History of Religion in the Classical World), Muntkunde e.d. (Numismatics), Epigrafie / Papyrologie (Epigraphy and Papyrology), Archeologie (Archaeology), Oude geschiedenis (Ancient History), Klassieke taal- en letterkunde (Classic Literature), Kunst v.d. klassieke oudheid (Classical Art), Exacte wetenschappen en technologie (Science and Technology), Aardrijkskunde en topografie (Geography and Topography), Rechtsgeschiedenis (Law History).

Persoonlijke selectie (Personal selection) with some more links to related topics.

ArchNet (20.02.2000)

One of the best and most extensive gateways for archaeology in general.

Academic Departments, Archaeological Regions: Africa, Asia, Australia and Pacific, Central America, Europe, Near East, North America, South America, Publishers, Museums on the Web, News & System Information, Other Resources, Email Directory (WEDA), Electronic Journals, Newsgroups & Listservs, Search ArchNet, Subject Areas: Archaeometry, Botanical Ceramics, CRM & Government Agencies, Educational Materials, Ethnohistory / Ethnoarchaeology, Faunal Geo-Archaeology, Historic Archaeology, Lithics, Mapping and GIS Method & Theory, Site Files & Tours Software.

Argos (18.02.2000)

Argos is a powerful search engine, dedicated to Ancient and Medieval studies. Its area of search is limited to a dozen specialised link collections from which the user gets faster and more customised results than in any other general search engine like Alta Vista, Lycos, LookSmart, MSN or Excite. Argos is hosted by the University of Evansville, in USA. The domain of Argos comprises the following lists:

Abzu: Guide to Resources for the Study of the Ancient Near East Available on the Internet, Byzantium: Byzantine Studies on the Internet, The Cambridge Classics External Gateway to Humanities Resources, Diotima: Materials for the Study of Women and Gender in the Ancient World, Exploring Ancient World Cultures, Kirke: Katalog der Internet-Ressourcen für die Klassische Philologie aus Erlangen, The Labyrinth: A World Wide Web Server for Medieval Studies, NetSERF: The Internet Connection for Medieval Resources, The Perseus Project: An Evolving Digital Library on Ancient Greece, Rassegna degli Strumenti Informatici per lo Studio dell'Antichità Classica, Romarch: Roman Art and Archaeology.

Altertumswissenschaft im Internet (17.02.2000)

A selective list by Karsten Wilkens (University Library of Constanza). The links are not numerous and are always followed by brief commentaries and presented in groups:

Kurztitelliste, Bibliographien, Current contents, Rezensionsorgane, Zeitschriften, Literaturhinweise, Adressenverzeichnisse, Bibliothekskataloge, Zeitschrifteninhaltserschliegung, Verlagskataloge, Suchmaschinen, Wörterbücher, Hypertextbeispiel, Zu einzelnen Gattungen Autoren Themen.

Bibliotheca Classica Selecta (17.02.2000)

Bibliotheca Classica Selecta is one of the most serious academic attempts to use Internet for Classical Studies. It is prepared by J.-M. Hannick and J. Poucet, and hosted by the Université Catholique de Louvain. It comprises six sections among which there is a huge bibliography [Bibliographie d'orientation (BCS-BOR)] organised by subject and comprising not only book references but also numerous well-selected links to e-resources. Search is possible thanks to suitable engine. The following categories can be found amongst the e-resources.

Points d'entrée généraux, Points d'entrée spécialisés, Archéologie et électronique, Editions électroniques de textes anciens, Epigraphie et électronique, Numismatique et électronique, Papyrologie et électronique, Sciences et techniques sur le Web, Bibliothèques belges (et étrangères), Centres de recherches belges, Universités et centres universitaires belges, Départements classiques, Listes de discussion ou de diffusion, Maisons d'édition et librairies, Cédéroms et logiciels classiques, Revues électroniques, TOCS-IN (BCS-TOC) [European mirror site of the bibliographical data bank elaborated by the University of Toronto], Articles en version électronique (BCS-PUB), Traductions françaises (BCS-TRA), comprising Lucian, Vergil and Apuleius.

Cambridge University Faculty of Classics: Links Gateway (17.02.2000)

This is a very useful list hosted by the Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge, and by Bruce Fraser. Links are commented and classified in chapters:

Literature, Philosophy, History, Art History and Archaeology, Linguistics and Philology, General Information, Special Topics: Byzantium and Near East Resources , Conferences, Egyptian Resources, Epigraphy, General and Non-Classical Resources: Drama, References, Greek Personal Names: A Lexicon, Language Searching: A Thesaurus Linguae, Greek and Latin, Late Antiquity, Lighted-hearted Links, and Games, Maps and Geography, Mathematics in the Ancient World, Medicine in the Ancient World, Museums and Art, Mythology, Numismatics, Oriental Culture, Political Theory, Papyrology and Palaeography, Religion and Medieval History, Rhetoric, Oratory and Orality, Technology in the Ancient World.

Classical Link Collection (Oxford) (17.02.2000)

A good collection of links may be found under WWW Items of Interest to Classicists in the Classics Home Page, Faculty of Litterae Humaniores, University of Oxford. It comprises the following chapters:

General Collections, Journals, Art Archaeology - Pictures (this part is due to John Younger), Papyrology Palaeography - Textual Criticism, Maps - Regional Information - Mediterranean news, Miscellaneous Resources (with, among others, links to Perseus and Thesaurus Linguae Graecae), Software for Classicists, Other Classics Departments, Individual Home Pages, Libraries and other catalogues Presses - Bookshops.

Classical Links at the University of Pennsylvania (20.02.2000)

This site, maintained by Jay Treat and obviously made for the needs of students in the Classics department, University of Pennsylvania, is not very rich. Only basic resources may be found here.

Classics Subject Guide (20.02.2000)

This list is due to Lyle Ford and Joan Martin (University of Alberta, Canada). Links are carefully selected and comments are to the point. The clear organisation of the site makes it a favourite place for many classicists.

Introduction, Art of the Ancient World, Archaeology, History, Listservs and E - Journals, University Classics Departments, Classics Societies, Other Classics Resources, Photograph Gallery, Search Tools.

Classics Eireann (18.02.2000)

Classics Eireann was previously known as Greek and Roman Civilisation Homepage, but nowadays it is hosted by the University College of Dublin and maintained by Simon Spence, Ardle MacMahon and Daron Higgins. The main page gives access to the following sections:

Archaeology Page: General, Greek Art and Architecture, Roman Art and Architecture, British Archaeology, Egyptian Art and Architecture, Near Eastern Art and Architecture, Museums and Archaeological Journals on line, Archaeological Departments. Internet Page: Search Engines. Literature and History Page: Literature, History, Mythology of the Ancient World, E-Journals for Classicists. Articles Page: some articles on line. Universities Page: Links to the University, Irish Universities, World Universities.

Classics Collections (20.02.2000)

This collection once named "Classics Alcove", is by Blake Landor in the site of the George A. Smathers Libraries of the University of Florida. Brief comments follow the links, which are divided in to sections:

Local Resources, Subject Guides/Indices, Databases, Bibliographies, Directories/Associations, Etexts, Journals, Art & Archaeology, Classical Mythology, Instructional Resources, Other Resources.

Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology (20.02.2000)

One of the oldest and richest lists on Classics. Sebastian Heath (University of Michigan) cares for frequent updates and additions of anything relative to Antiquity. Nevertheless links are not commented and the user only has a vague idea of their contents, according to the section in to which they are classified:

Texts, Projects, Journals, Bibliographies, Etc. Exhibits, Web Documents and Sources of Images. Field Projects and Site Specific Reports. Related Courses, Course Material and Departmental Descriptions. Museums. Atlases and Geographic Information. News Groups, Mail Lists and FAQs. Other Gophers, FTP Servers, and Telnet Sessions by Topic. Loosely Related Material. Other World Wide Web Servers.

Classics Gateways (20.02.2000)

An extensive and very well organised list from the University of Reading. Links are only briefly described.

Bibliographies & Journals, Library Catalogues & Booksellers, Upcoming Conferences, History and Atlases, Art and Archaeology, Texts and Authors, Religion and Mythology, Philosophy, Science and Medicine, Rhetoric and Law, Gender Studies, Late Antiquity and Medieval Studies, Other Ancient Cultures, Fonts, Language & Computer Resources, Reception of Antiquity, Papyri, Inscriptions and Manuscripts, Departments and Institutes, Associations & Directories, Other WWW Guides.

Classics Links (20.02.2000)

Maintained by the Classics Department of Texas University. Offers various links to important Gateways.

Classics Webliography (20.02.2000)

A short but well-organised list by Steven Harris and hosted by the Luisana State University. Briefly commented links are divided into the following chapters:

Web Guides to General Classics Resources, Web Guides to Roman Resources, Web Guides to Greek Resources, Print Resources in the LSU Libraries, Online Greek and Latin Texts, Ancient Greek and Roman Images, Journals (Print and Online), Online Dictionaries.

Deutsche Datenquellen: Alte Geschichte (18.02.2000)

This is just the part of KIRKE dedicated to the study of history. The list, maintained by Ulrich Schmitzer, collects german-language, historical sites and presents them in separate sections:

Projekt Telemachos/Telemaco, Linksammlungen, Institutionen, Bibliographisches, Zeitschriften, Online-Publikationen, Lehre im Netz, Serien, elektronische Buchanhänge, Epigraphische und papyrologische Einzelprojekte, Einzelprojekte: die Römer in Deutschland, Weitere Einzelprojekte, Biographisches, Kommerzielles, Ihre Kommentare.

Electronic Library For Ancient Historians (20.02.2000)

Hosted by the Indiana University and compiled by Callie Williamson, this catalogue is a very useful one because of its pertinent comments on each link. The main page gives access to four categories:

General/Reference, Ancient Resources, On-Line Journals, General Sources.

Electronic Resources for Classicists: The Second Generation (20.02.2000)

As stated in the title of the list, this is the second electronic edition of the guide initially published on paper by Maria P. Pantelia. The easy navigation of the site, its well-organised material and its frequent updates make it the site most praised by the American Classicists:

Introduction, Gateways, Links to Classics Resources, Databases and Web Projects, Home Pages, E-Publications, Publishers and Journals, Bibliographical Indexes, Bibliographies, Images, E-Text Archives, Course Materials, Author Specific Sites, Fonts and Software, Software Developers, Professional Organisations, Classics Departments, On-line Seminars, Miscellaneous, K-12 Resources, Discussion Groups.

Exeter Subject Tree: Classics & Ancient History (18.02.2000)

This is a list made by Stuart Macwilliam. Links are followed by brief but thoughtful comments and incisive descriptions. Nevertheless, the list seems out of date. It comprises:

General Guides and Gateways, Reference Works, Organisations - including Academic Departments, Library Catalogues, Bibliographies, Primary Texts, Secondary Texts, Journals, Publishers' Catalogues, Discussion Lists, Art and Images.

Horus' World Wide Web Links to History Resources (20.02.2000)

This is a general gateway for history but the section on Antiquity is quite rich. Very useful for links to sites dealing with peripheral cultures. Under the main section for Antiquity the following sections can be found:

China Egypt General Ancient, Classical / Near East, Geography, Greece (including Byzantine Period) Israel, Mesopotamia / Syria / Fertile Crescent, Patristic / Early Christian History, Rome (including Roman Empire / Italy / Sardinia / Sicily), Ancient / Classical Resources for Study, Ancient / Classical Period Reference Works, Classical / Ancient Studies, Journals / Magazines, Directories of Ancient and Classical Periods.

The HUMBUL Gateway (18.02.2000)

The HUMBUL is a selective Gateway for the study of the Humanities on Internet. It comprises sections on Archaeology and Classics. It is hosted by the Humanities Computing Unit of the University of Oxford. The main links give access either to the sites themselves or to their descriptions in situ. You may add your own comments, visit the New Sites in a particular section, or use some of the most efficient search engines.

Anthropology, Archaeology, Classics, Dictionaries on-line, Electronic Text Resources, Film, Drama and Media Studies, History, Humanities Computing, Hypermedia, Languages and Linguistics, Libraries, Literature, Medieval Studies, Miscellaneous, Music, Open and Distance Learning, Philosophy, Religious Studies, Visual Arts.

Iniziative di informatica umanistica (18.02.2000)

This list collects sites dealing with the application of informatics in humanities. Sites may be found on methodology and principles as well as sites presenting a particular project. Links are selected and commented by Alberto Camplani. The main sections are:

Centri di informatica umanistica (didattica e ricerca), Archivi testuali e linguistici, Codifica, Storia, Antichità: archeologia, papirologia, Filologia, archeologia, civiltà antiche, Papirologia, Arte e musei, Musicologia, Biblioteche e archivi musicali, Musica antica, Teoria musicale, Musica elettronica, Siti musicologici generali, Geografia, Gruppi di interesse specifico - Riviste elettroniche.

Internet Resources for Classical Studies (20.02.2000)

The guide is hosted in the pages of Indiana University and updated thanks to Kevin T. Glowacki. The material is organised in the following categories:

Great Places to Begin Surfing, Book Reviews & Bibliography, Latin Language & Roman Culture, Greek Language & Culture, Classical Mythology, Classical Art & Archaeology, Other Classics Departments.

Kentucky Selection of Web Sites (20.02.2000)

This list, maintained by Ross Scaife and hosted by the University of Kentucky, is a good gateway, well-organised but without comments on the links. The main page gives access to the following categories (which are further subdivided):

Faculty, Degree Programs, Study Abroad, Courses We Offer, Spoken Latin & Neolatin, Art, Myth, and Archaeology, Libraries & Bibliography, UK, Lexington, & Kentucky, Professional Resources, Want to be a Latin teacher.

KIRKE - Katalog der Internet-Ressourcen für die Klassische Philologie aus Erlangen (18.02.2000)

KIRKE is dedicated to classical philology but host also the Deutsche Datenquellen: Alte Geschichte und Klassische Philologie. It represents one of the richest collections and is supported by the University of Erlangen. The links are described with a few words in German. The sections are articulated as follows:

Hilfen bei der Suche (other link collections), Institute Seminare - Departments, Zeitschriften online, Bibliographien Bücher Projekte, Spezielle Themen (Frauen, Kinder etc., Geschichte, Philologie, Naturwissenschaft, Mythologie, Religion, Spätantike, Christentum), Antike Texte (Didaktische Hilfsmittel, Software on line, Virtuelle Antike, Institute für Computeranwendungen in den Geisteswissenschaften, Antikenrezeption im Film, Antike Buchkultur - Epigraphik, Papyrologie, Verlagskataloge), Nachbardisziplinen, Archäologie (Institutions and Research Projects, Archaeological Places, E-Journals, Museums, Exhibitions and Collections of Images, Archaeological Excavations), Neue Links des laufenden Monats.

Labyrinth (20.02.2000)

This guide is hosted by the Georgetown University and covers mediaeval studies. Nevertheless, there is enough material (texts of ancient authors, journals etc.) relevant to classicists. There is also a search browsing from the following sections:

Latin Bible, Liturgical Texts, Classical Greek Texts that Influenced Latin Traditions, Classical and Late Classical Latin Texts, Early Patristic Writings, Subject Menus, Labyrinth On Line Bibliographies, Pedagogical Resources, Professional News, Publications and Organisations, Labyrinth Electronic Center, Medieval Studies Databases, Projects, E-Journals, Daedalus's Guides to the Net and Web: Resources and Tools.

Links to Classical Materials (20.02.2000)

An extensive and nicely presented list of Classics resources conceived by David Rosenbloom and maintained by Arthur Pomeroy, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand). Numerous briefly described links are classified into the following categories:

Periodicals Classics Resources Texts and Bibliographies Departments, Libraries, MuseumsAssociations and Individuals Hellas The Roman World Egypt and the Near East A Miscellany.

Oxford Libraries Internet Gateway (20.02.2000)

This is a general gateway, which also provides some links relevant to the classics scattered in various broad categories,such as philosophy, history of science etc.

Rassegna delle Risorse Elettroniche per lo Studio dell'Antichità Classica (20.02.2000)

The Rassegna is undoubtedly the richest and most important list relevant to Classicists and Archaeologists. It had begun as a personal page of Alessandro Cristofori, but soon has been adopted by the University of Bologna. This excellent guide is complete, very well presented and regularly updated. Long and essential comments on the sites, and on "of line" resources, are given in Italian. It seemed appropriate to give here the full contents.

Novita, Gateways e Guide, America, Asia e Oceania, Europa, Fonti Letterarie, Testi su supporto magnetico, Testi on line, I singoli autori on line: Autori greci, I singoli autori on line: Autori latini, I singoli autori on line: Autori cristiani, Fonti Epigrafiche, Fonti Papirache, Fonti Numismatiche, Documentazzione Archeologica e Immagini, Guide e strumenti di orientamento, Progetti di interesse generale, Raccolte di immagini, Penisola Iberica, Gallia, Britannia, Germania, Italia: Risorse generali sull'archeologia dell'Italia, Roma e il Lazio, Campania, Apulia et Calabria, Lucania et Brutii, Samnium, Picenum, Umbria, Etruria, Aemilia, Liguria, Venetia et Histria, Transpadana, Sicilia, Sardinia et Corsica, Area Danubiana e Balcanica, Grecia, Asia minore, Vicino Oriente, Egitto, Africa settentrionale, Riviste electroniche, Strumenti di aggiornamento, Riviste elettroniche concernenti l'antichità classica, La Ricerca Bibliografica, Repertori bibliografici su supporto magnetico, Repertori bibliografici on line, Indici di riviste, Bibliotheche Elettroniche, Biblioteche virtuali, Pagine elettroniche di biblioteche reali, Materialli Didattici, Guide e grandi progetti didattici, Corsi on line, Software per la didattica, Le Strutture della Ricerca Scientifica sull' Antichita Classica, Strumenti di orientamento, Associazioni, Strutture Accademiche: Canada, Strutture Accademiche: Germania, Strutture Accademiche: Italia, Strutture accademiche: Regno Unito, Strutture Accademiche: Spagna, Strutture accademiche: Stati Uniti, Strutture accademiche: Il resto del mondo, Home Pages di singoli studiosi, Gruppi di Discussione, Strumenti di orientamento, I singoli gruppi di discussione, Informazioni, Annunci di lavoro, Cataloghi librari, Convegni, Indirizzari, Musei e Mostre, Guide e strumenti di orientamento, Musei on line: Italia, Musei on line: Il resto del mondo, Mostre virtuali, Altre risorse elettroniche organizzate per soggetto, Altre civiltà in rapporto con la Grecia e Roma, Antichità Celtiche, Antichità Italiche, Antropologia, Cronologia, Etruscologia, Folklore e Mitologia, Geografia e Cartografia, Paleografia e Storia della Scrittura, Prosopografia, Retorica, Storia del Cristianesimo, Storia del diritto, Storia dell'economia antica, Storia della filosofia antica, Storia greca, Storia militare, Storia della navigazione, Storia delle religioni classiche, Storia romana, Storia della scienza, Storia sociale e Antichità greche e romane, Studi Ebraici, Software, Siti generali, Fonts, Software per la preparazione di edizioni critiche, Software per la consultazione di CD-ROM, Software e guide per la creazione di documenti html per WWW, Browser per la navigazione in Internet, Altri programmi utili per classicisti, Glossario, Risorse da verificare, Indice Alphabetico delle Risorse Schedate.

Research Institute for the Humanities - History (20.02.2000)

This collection from Hong Kong is a general gateway for history but there are numerous links of interest to classicists:

Servers & Directories, Regions (of special interest the links to sites dealing with the relations between Europe and the East), Periods (only a small part on Antiquity), Specific Topics, Serials & Resources.

Resources for Classics on the Internet (20.02.2000)

A nice list maintained by Bob Kaster in the Classics Department of the University of Chicago. Brief descriptions illustrate the links that are divided to the following sections:

Resources for Classics at the University of Chicago Quick link to the library catalogue Resources for Classics on the Internet: Overviews, Summaries, and Useful Collections Texts, Images, Vistas Libraries and Related Resources Electronic Journals and Mailing Lists Finding other classicists on the Internet: Learned Societies, Professional Associations, and Related Groups Other Classics and Archaeology Programs.

Repositories of Classical Texts and Publications (20.02.2000)

This well-organised list is maintained by J. Ruebel and hosted by the Iowa State University. Ruebel gives brief comments on many of the entries, which appear in the following sections:

Resources and Information, Language Study, Texts, Journals, Databases, Mailing Lists, Classical Associations, Institutions or Departments.

Roman Sites*/index.html (20.02.2000)

This is the ultimate list for Latinists and students of Roman civilisation. The compilation is by Bill Thayer as part of a broad educational project called Lacus Curtius. There are more than two thousand links divided in chapters:

Archaeology, Art and Architecture, Books, Journals and Bibliographies, Money and artefacts, History (Biography, Genealogy, Prosopography, History of Late Antiquity), Latin language and literature Religion (Classical Religion and Mythology, Oriental Religions, Christianity, Judaism and Mithraism), Astrology, Magic, Philosophy and Economy, Sciences, Technology, Engineering, Medicine, Agriculture, Mines, Congresses, Exhibition, Everyday life, Roman calendars, Law, Cartography, Military and naval Antiquity, Curiosities, Topography, The city of Rome, Italy, France, The Greek World, Iberian Peninsula, Central Europe, Asia Minor, Near East, North Africa.

Swansea, University of Wales, Department of Classics and Ancient History (20.02.2000)

This is the official site of the Classics Department of the University of Wales. Under "Internet Resources" you will find short lists of uncommented links in the following categories:

Electronic Texts, Electronic Journals, Other Classics Departments: UK and rest of the world, Greece, Rome, Egyptology, Near East, Archaeology and anthropology, Museums, CTIs and computing solutions, Books, Other related sites, Other useful information, Wales and other Welsh Universities.

Virtuelle Bibliothek der Klassische Archaeologie (18.02.2000)

Stefan Altekamp, in the Humbolt Universität of Berlin, produced a huge catalogue dealing mainly with classical archaeology, which appears as the e-supplement of his printed guide to classical Internet (Stefan Altekamp - Paul Tiedemann, Internet für Archäologen: Eine praxisorientierte Einführung (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), Primus Verlag, Darmstadt 1999). The site is very well-organised, following a subject division common to archaeologists. Entries, mostly of scientific interest, are presented with essential comments. You may also find a section with some popular sites. The links are organised into the following topics:

Archaeology and Internet, Indices of General Resources, Indices by Country, On line Catalogue of the Local Library, University Courses, List of Thesis, Archaeological Theory, Institutions, Archaeological Services, Persons. Management of Archaeological Projects, Archaeology and Law, Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Excavation Techniques, Surveys, Photogrammetria, Underwater Archaeology, Archaeometry, Computer Restoration. History of Archaeology and Antiquity Traditions, Classical Archaeology and Popular Culture, Classical Archaeology and Teaching. History of Art, Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Relief, Mosaics, Ceramics, Utensils, Applied Arts, Iconology and Iconography. Topography: Atlas, General Geography and Topography, Occidental Europe, Central and Southern Europe, Greece, Italy, Turkey, Near East, North Africa. Museums and Collections. Geographical and chronological domains, Public and Private Spheres in Antiquity. Text Archives, Epigraphy, Numismatics, On line Journals.

Voice of the Shuttle: Classical Studies Page (18.02.2000)

The Voice of the Shuttle is the personal page of Alan Liu. It is a general gateway for the Humanities but two subpages (Classical Studies and Archaeology) are as rich as any many specialised collections. A few words beside every link, and sometimes brief comments, help orientation. The list is frequently updated and there is even a subpage for links proposed by users and not yet checked. The classical material is organised as follows:

Classical Studies: General Classics Resources, Language Resources, Archaeology & Art, History & Culture, Literature, Mythology, Philosophy, Journals, Classics Depts., Course Syllabi, Conferences, Call for Papers. Archaeology: General Resources, Works, Sites, Projects, Museums, Archaeological Historical Preservation, Course Syllabi and Teaching Resources, Journals, Departments and Programmes, Listservs and Newsgroups, Conferences and Call for Papers.

UCL Internet Resources Guide: Greek & Latin (18.02.2000)

Small list of resources on classics:

Collections of Classics/Ancient World resources, Electronic Journals, Electronic Text, Projects of interest to classicists, Newsgroups.

World Wide Web Virtual Library: Humanities (20.02.2000)

The WWW Virtual Library (Göteborg University, Sweden) Antiquity section is not rich but well-articulated. As expected various larger fields are included with no specific classification. The main topics of interest for classicists are:

Humanities, general: Humanities Computing, Other Indexes, Archaeology, History, Philosophy, Religion, Archaeology and Ethnology, Fine Art, History, Philosophy, History of Science, Religion, Languages and literature, Languages, Lexical Research and Dictionaries, Text Archives, Linguistics, Literature, Academies and Associations, Conferences, Exhibitions and Museums, Libraries, Journals and Newspapers, Education, Bookseller's and other commercial companies.

WWW-VL History (20.02.2000)

This is the general Gateway of the University of Kansas maintained by Lynn H. Nelson. One of the best lists for Antiquity though not very frequented. The organisation of the regularly updated but not commented subpages is the following:

Research: Methods and Materials. Finding Aids: Bibliography, Guides, Indexes, Libraries, Archives, Manuscripts, Museums, Booksellers. Materials: Electronic Texts, Historical Journals, DataBases, General Reference Works, on-line Images, Maps for Historians. Methods and Auxiliary Disciplines: Methodologies, Archaeology, Demography, Genealogy, Language, Timelines. Instruction: Instructional Resources, Distance Education, Employment, Grants, Information Quality. Network Information: Networking, Search Engines, Software. Scholarly Exchange: Scholarly Societies and Associations, Centers and Institutes, on-line Discussion Lists. Eras and Epochs, where can be found section on Ancient Greece, Hellenistic Age and Ancient Rome. Historical Topics: Architecture, Art, Climatology, Costume, Holocaust, Indigenous Peoples, Islam, Labour History, Maritime History, History of Medicine, Military History, History of Science, Slavery, Urban History, Women's History. Finally there is also a presentation of resources by country.

Other Insitutions

Archaeology on the Net (20.02.2000)

One of the best archaeological resources lists. Not specialised in classical Antiquity but with good choice of partially commented links which appear in three main directories:

REGIONAL: Africa, America North and South, Anatolia (Turkey), Asia, Australia and New Zealand, Europe, Near East. RESOURCES: Academic Journals, Academic Departments, Associations and Organisations, Bibliographies, Books, Discussion Lists and Newsgroups, Field and Research Reports, Fieldwork Opportunities, Maps and Atlases, Teaching Resources, Web Ring. GENERAL: Anthropology, Archaeological, Computing Archaeometry, Conservation, Cultural Heritage Management, Dendrochronology, Ethnoarchaeology, Faunal and Floral Studies, GIS and Remote Sensing, Linguistics, Lithics, Museums, Rock Art, Underwater Archaeology.

Archaeological Resource Guide for Europe (ARGE) (20.02.2000)

An extensive gateway which does not concern only classical archaeologists. Links with comments may be viewed by period, or by country, or even by subject. Here is a choice from the subject catalogue:

The Aegean, Ceramic studies, Classical Archaeology, Coins, Computational Archaeology, Databases, Dendrochronology, Discussion lists, Field Work, Fringe Archaeology, Gender studies, Geographical information systems (GIS), Geopositioning systems (GPS), Greeks, Illyrians, Landscape Archaeology, Material Culture & Technology, the Mediterranean, Metallurgy and Metals, Minoans, Mycenaeans, Research projects, Romans, Scythians, Spartans, Statues and Stelae, Underwater, Nautical and Marine Archaeology, Virtual reality.

Latein-Forum (20.02.2000)

A personal page with many links to the Roman Civilisation and the Latin Language. Links are not commented:

Forum-Suchmaschine, Latein-Forum, Inhaltsverzeichnis - eigene Seiten, Allgemeines - Bildungsserver, Allgemeines - Suchmaschinen, Allgemeines - Teil 1 - 3, Alte Geschichte - Teil 1-5, Altertum und Internet - Latein und Computer, Archäologie, Die Roemer am Limes Lateinisches - heute, Lehrbücher - Materialien, Museen und Aktivitäten, Mythologie der Antike Persönlichkeiten der Antike - Herrscher - Politiker, Persönlichkeiten der Antike - Herrscher, Persönlichkeiten der Antike - Lateinische Autoren, Pompeji, Projekte, Rom im WWW - Roma aeterna, Rom im WWW - Studienfahrten - Roma-Vetus-Projekt - Tourismus - Information, Römergruppen - Imperial Roman Reenacting, Römisches Leben - Küche - Kunst - Medizin - Musik, Römisches Leben - Religion - Münzen - Leben - Spiele - Straßen - Theater - Wasse, Römisches Leben - Waffen und Armee, Unterricht - Didaktik - neue Aspekte und Methoden, Unterrichtsmaterialien - Grammatik - Teil 1-2, Unterrichtsmaterialien - virtuelle Touren.

Library of Congress: Greek and Latin Classics Internet Resources (20.02.2000)

A rich page on classical Antiquity may be found under the auspices of the Library of Congress. Though the choices are good, the list lacks the "healthy curiosity of the specialist"; on the other hand it is regularly updated and comprises the following sections:

Classics Links of Broad Scope, Texts, Universities, Colleges, Schools, Links to Special Fields and Resources: Archaeology, Ancient Sites and Monuments, Art and Architecture, Associations and Professional Organisations, Computer Software, Conferences, Directories, Electronic Journals and Classics Periodicals Resources, Games, History, Languages and Linguistics, Law, Medieval Studies, Medicine, Military, History, Miscellaneous, Music, Mythology, Newsgroups and Mailing Lists, Numismatics, Palaeography, Papyrology, Publishers' and Vendors' Pages and Catalogues, Sports Teaching, Tools and Course Materials.

Recursos para conocer el mundo clasico en Internet (20.02.2000)

An interesting list supported by the Sociedad Espaola de Estudios Clasicos (Canaries, Spain) by Ivan Juanes. The list includes the chapters:

General, Recursos docentes, Lengua,Cultura, Historia, Musica y Derecho, Departamentos y asociaciones, Software, tipos de letra y compra de libros, Literatura y teatro, Textos clasicos, Arqueologia y Arte: ciencias auxiliares, Revistas electronicas y bibliografia, Indoeuropeo y sanscrito, Intercambio docente recursos/experiencias.htmlrecursos/experiencias.html, Mitologia y religion, Filosofia, Bibliotecas, Listas de distribucion.

Yahoo: Ancient History, Classics (20.02.2000) (20.02.2000)

General indexes usually do not offer good pages on such specialised topics as Antiquity. Yahoo's lists on Ancient History and Classics is the best among them, with only brief descriptions of the links:

Ancient History: Ancient Art, Coins and Currency, College and University Departments, Egypt, Etruscans, Greece, Mesopotamia, Roman Empire, Timelines, Web Directories, Women in Antiquity.

Classics: Ancient Greek History, Archaeology, Authors, Education, Greek Tragedy, Institutes, Journals, Languages, Mailing Lists, Organisations, Papyrology, Roman History, Web Directories.

Personal Home Pages Ancient / Classical History (18.02.2000)

This is a popular link collection addressed mainly to the general public. Sections are heterogeneous and the search for an interesting link resembles a treasure-hunt:

Alexander the Great, Amazons, Anatolia, Battles and Campaigns, Calendars, Celts, Cleopatra, Death/Afterlife, Economics, Egypt/Kemet, Far East, Greece, Hercules, Historical Recreation, Illyria/Albania, Independent/Homeschoolers, Julius Caesar, Medea, Medicine, Mesoamerica, Near East, Numismatics, Philosophers, Rome, Schools' Pages, Socialising, South Asia, Weapons/Arms/Warfare/Tactics, Women.

Academic Info Ancient History (18.02.2000)

Mike Madin compiled a directory with selected webliographies on humanities. This particular page presents, and sometimes comments on sites related to ancient history. Some unusual connections occur in the otherwise not very broad choice. The collection includes the following sections:

Search Engine, Meta-Indexes & General Directories, Texts & Documents, Reference Tools, Ancient Greece, Ancient, Rome, Women in Antiquity, Religion in the Ancient World, Online Publications, Selected Institutes & Organisations, Others Sites of Interest.

Academic Info Classical Studies (18.02.2000)

This page on classical studies is also compiled by Mike Madin and includes the chapters:

Search Engine, Meta-Indexes & General Directories, Texts & Documents, Greek Language, Greek Literature, Latin Language, Latin Literature, Other Language, Tools, Online Publications, The Reference Shelf Teaching Materials, Others Sites of Interest.

Aegean Prehistory Web Resources (20.02.2000)

A single page ( and long) by Andrea Vianello points to sites dealing with Aegean Prehistory. Links are not organised but provided with noteworthy comments.

Altertumswissenschaftliche CD-ROMs (20.02.2000)

A short guide (48 CD-ROMs) to the "off line" resources with comments and links to scholarly criticism presented in a personal page (Markus Sehlmeyer) under the following sections:

Historische Darstellungen (Perseus, Pandora, Mommsens StR auf CD-ROM) Antike griechische Texte und Übersetzungen (3 CD-ROMs) Antike lateinische Texte (6 CD-ROMs) Spätantike, mittelalterliche und neulateinische Texte (6 CD-ROMs) Hilfsmittel zum Mittellatein; ma. Bibliographien Bibliographische CD-ROMs (Gnomon-4, DCB-2, DYABOLA ...) Bilddatenbanken (Archäologische Quellen) - NEU - Epigraphik und Papyrologie (6 CD-ROMs) Für die Schule: Geschichte, Latein Nachschlagewerke // Neuheiten (6 CD-ROMs).

The Amazing Ancient World of Western Civilization (18.02.2000)

This is a very rich list addressed mostly to the general public, though there are numerous links to academic pages. It is quite difficult to navigate through the large files and the organisation of the material is rather peculiar:

The mystery that was Egypt, The complexity that was the "other ancients", The Glory that was Greece, The Power that was Rome, The challenge that was Christianity, Ancient Cultures: Spanning and Connecting.

The Ancient World Web (18.02.2000)

This very rich list (about 1000 links) is by Julia Hayden. Links are well-organised and frequently updated. The user has the choice of three different presentations: alphabetical index, geographical classification or subject classification. The main categories of the latter are:

Alternative Theories, Archaeology, Art, Buildings Monuments and Cities, Daily Life, General Resources, Inspired by Ancient World, Institutions and Organisations, Language and Literature, Mythology and Releigion, Science.

Archaeology and Architecture (20.02.2000)

European Archaeology, Greek Archaeology, Roman Archaeology, Computers in Archaeology, Archaeological News, Web-sites.

Bellum Catilinae (20.02.2000)

This is a rich list hosted in a personal page. It presents many scholarly, interesting sites but also contains special categories for popular or commercial sites. Most of the links are commented and frequently up-dated. You may find the following groups:

Life of Catiline, Don't push this button, Greek Palaeography, Latin Palaeography, A Clay Seal, Tabularum XII Relicta, De re coquinaria, Ancient Pipe Organs, Conjectural Map of Pompeii, Recipes of the Classicists, Two New Journals, Classics Needs, The 1998 Julius Awards, Primary and Secondary Schools, Universities A-H, Universities I-T, Universities U-Z, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, etc., Other Educational Sites, Sights in the Ancient World, Archaeology, Architecture, Art & Artefacts, Atlases, Maps & Gazetteers, Computer Programs & Fonts, History & Sociology, Language, Libraries, Literature, Manuscripts, Papyri & Ostraca, Medicine, Science, Mathematics & Industry, Military, Museums, Numismatics, Online Periodicals, Religion, Myth & Astrology, Other Free Research Materials, Antiquities, Coins, etc,. Booksellers, Commercial Databases, etc., Periodicals, Presses, Software, Other Commercial Sites, Classics Organisations, News & Chat Sites, Private Individuals, Bread & Circuses, Holidays, Reenactors, Other Lists.

Charta Caerulea Petri Henrici Barreda (17.02.2000)

The collection of this page represents the one hundred most visited web sites concerning Latin. Ipso facto we find among them many sites concerning classical antiquity in general. Nevertheless, there are too many sites of little or no relevance to the specialist. P. E. Barreda compiled the list and links are described in a few words in Spanish.

Classics & Ancient World (20.02.2000)

A list on Classics may be found as part of the Digital Librarian, compiled by Margaret Vail Anderson, a librarian in Cortland, New York. A not very rich collection of briefly described but unclassified links.

C.W. Conrad Home Page 

This list is part of Carl W. Conrads home page:

Antiquity (general and history of religions), Authors and Texts, General Classics Listings, Specialised Sites, Map Resources for Ancient World, Panoramic View of Ancient World, General Resources, Classics Associations, Classics Departmental Sites, Classics Publishers, Medieval and Latin Language and Culture, Classics E-Journals, Personal Pages of Note.

Etruscan Resources at the University of North Carolina (20.02.2000)

A personal page by Julia Hayden, who is also the curator of the list The Ancient World.

Internet Resources, General Resources, Art, History, Religion, Culture.

Forbidden Archaeology (20.02.2000)

A personal page in English created by Alex Franz (Mexico) with many links but no comments. Links are presented in ten categories:

Texts, Projects, Journals, Bibliographies etc. - Exhibits, Web Documents and Sources of Images - Field Projects and Site Specific Reports - Departmental Descriptions - Course Material and Teaching Resource - Museums, Atlases and Geographic Information - News Groups, Mail Lists and FAQs - Other World Wide Web Servers.

Greek (Attic / Hellenic) Sites on the World-Wide Web (20.02.2000)

This is mainly a popular oriented personal list by Bob Fisher. Uncommented links fall into four categories:

Authors and Texts, Art and Images, Resources and Topics, Maps and Geography.

HEMEA: Heuristiek Mediterrane Archeologie (20.02.2000)

Hemea is a personal page maintained by Stephan ten Hacken in two versions: Dutch and English. The links without comments are presented in chapters:

Search and Indices, Reference Works Bibliographies, Catalogues, Journals, Institutions, Museums, Images, Excavations, Books and Publishers, Library - Acquisitions, Directories, Research Data, Syllabi and Texts.

Internet Ancient History Resource Guide (18.02.2000)

This is a useful general guide on classical antiquity by Koen Verboven. Each site is described and often introduced with large extracts from the presentation of the site itself. This is particularly valuable as the sites aim and character become more comprehensible. The links are divided as follows:

Getting started and staying updated. Gateways and sites of information. Heuristics: Electronic Texts. Epigraphy. Papyrology, Numismatics, Ceramics. Heuristic resources 'off-line'. Looking for books and articles?: Bibliographies, reviews, publication lists and tables of contents. Bibliographies off line, Publishers' catalogues. Library catalogues, Electronic Book editions and studies. Reference works and tools: Encyclopaedia, dictionaries and prosopographies, Maps and geography. Research Fora: Electronic Journals and Newsletters, Newsgroups, mailing lists and so forth, Conference and lecture announcements. Education and studies: Educational Sites, Summer course. Varia and recreation.

Internet Resources for Classics (20.02.2000)

Links without comments in this list are mainly orientated to the North American resources. Marshall Davies Lord, who compiled the list as a personal page, makes relatively frequent updates.

Art, Architecture, Books, Entertainment, Epigraphy, E-Texts, History, Home Pages, Indices, Journals, Medieval, Modern Literature., Museums, Music, Mythology, Numismatics, Organisations, Projects, Resources, Satellite Images, Search Engines, Sites Software, Universities.

James O'Donnell Home Page (20.02.2000)

Professor James O'Donnel (University of Pennsylvania) gives a list for classicists in his personal page. There is no attempt at exhaustive presentation but rather a personal point of view on antiquity through four general categories, outlined on the main page:

Libraries, Resources in Classical Studies, Resources in Late Antique and Medieval Studies, General Scholarly Tools.

Pomoerium Best Computer Resources (20.02.2000)

This is a German list but edited in English by Ryszard Pankiewicz (Bochum). The site hosts also the e-journal of the same name. Numerous and regularly updated links are not commented and appear in the following sections:

General Resources, Libraries & Publishers, Organisations, Universities, Conferences & Courses, Projects & Databases, Bibliographies, Maps & Lists, Journals & Series, Languages, Classics Texts & Authors, Greek Texts, Roman Texts, Epigraphy, Papyrology, Classics Books, Bibliographic Databases, Tools & Fonts, Computer Links, Computer Literature, Archaeology & Technology, Numismatics, Simulacra, Arts Resources, Museums & Exhibitions, Public & Private Life, Theater & Music, Philosophy, Medicine, Science, Ancient Law, Judaism, Early Christianity, Religions & Mythologies, Anthropology & Sociology, Mesoamerica, Orientalia, Classics Homepages, Best Classics Links, Online Texts.


1 Solomon, J. (ed.), Accessing antiquity: The computerization of classical studies, Tucson - London 1993. Schäfer C., Computer und antike Texte, St. Katharinen 1993.

2 Béguin, D., Les antiquisants face à l'informatique et aux réseaux, (15 Feb.2000). Cristofori A., Storia Antica e Computer, (18 Feb. 2000).

3 Mylonas, E., Crane, G., Morrell, K., Smith, D.N., The Perseus Project. Data in the Electronic Age, in: Solomon, J. (ed.), Accessing antiquity: the computerization of classical studies, Tucson - London 1993, pp. 133-156. Juhl, ., Ex machina: Electronic resources for the classics, Choice, 32, (1994/95), pp. 1249-1261. Anciennes nations, nouveaux réseaux, Cahiers de Médiologie, 3, 1997, (7 Dec.1999). Renard D., L'impact d'Internet sur la documentation et la recherche en philologie classique, Revue Informatique et Statistique dans les Sciences Humaines, 30, 1996, pp. 247-264. Hanard, S., Electronic Scholarly Publications: Quo Vadis, Solaris, 3, juin 1996. Deibert, R.J., Parchment, printing, and hypermedia: Communication in world order transformation, New York 1997. Narducci, E., Avventure di un antichista su Internet, (30 Nov. 1999).

4 Even dissertations are now published on the web: Dieterle, M., Dodona: Religiongeschichtliche und historische Untersuchungen zu Entstehung und Entwicklung des Zeus-Heiligtums, Diss. University of Hamburg, Hamburg 1999, (20 Feb. 2000).

5 Pantelia, M.C., Electronic Resources for Classicists, New England classical journal / Classical computing, 21.3, February 1994, pp. 117-121. Second version: Pantelia, M.C., Electronic Resources for Classicists, New England classical journal / Classical computing, 22.3 (February 1995), pp. 117-127, (9 Dec. 1999). The gateway is now: Pantelia, M.C., Electronic Resources for Classicists: The Second Generation, (20.Feb.2000). Lana, M., Strumenti informatici per le lingue classiche, Arachnion, 1, 1995,

6 Kaufmann, D., Tiedemann, P., Internet für Althistoriker und Altphilologen: Eine praxisorientierte Einführung, Darmstadt 1999. Altekamp, S., Tiedemann, P., Internet für Archäologen: Eine praxisorientierte Einführung, Darmstadt 1999. For a review of the second volume see: Schmitzer, U., (16 Feb. 2000).

7 Gill, D.W.J., Archaeology in the World Wide Web, Antiquity, 264, September 1995, (18 Jan.2000).

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2001: Foundation of the Hellenic World