This decade, which essentially came to an end with the military coup of 1967, was especially important regarding literary production. In poetry, the 30s generation achieved remarkable creative accomplishments. G. Ritsos, . Elytis, . Empirikos, . G. Pentzikis published some of their most mature works. Undoubtedly, the supreme moment of recognition of high quality poetry produced in that period was the Nobel Prize award to G. Seferis in 1963.

At the same time, the second postwar generation expressed in a more direct way the social and ideological changes of its world. The most typical representatives were V. Vasilikos, M. Koumantareas, N. A. Aslanoglou, N. Christianopoulos, M. Chakkas etc. Works such as The Third Wedding by K. Tachtsis became very popular after their publication, whereas The End of Our Small Town by D. Chatzis marked the end of prewar prose. Lastly, the publication of the trilogy Drifting Cities by S. Tsirkas by marrying history with literature introduced new ways of narration and constituted the point of reference for postwar production.

The dictatorship of 1967 brought a dark cloud over the intellectual production since the overwhelming majority of writers, when they were not in prison (Ritsos, Vournas etc.) or in exile (Patrikios, Alexandrou etc.), censored themselves. The regime's prohibitions led to symbolic acts of protest by the intelligentsia, culminating in the public denouncement by G. Seferis (March 1969).