The Treaty of Lausanne

The following excerpt is taken from the text of the treaty concluded at Lausanne on 24/7/1923, in the Protection of Minorities section. It is published in: I synthiki tis Lozanis, to plires keimenī, ed. Leschi ton Neon Ellinon, Editions Papazissi, Athens, n.d.

Article 37
Turkey undertakes the obligation that the stipulations included in the articles 38-44 be recognized as fundamental laws, so as no law or regulation or some official act be in contradiction or opposition to these stipulations (...).

Article 38
The Turkish government undertakes the obligation to provide to all the inhabitants of Turkey full and absolute protection of their life and freedom, independent of birth, nationality, language, race or religion.
All the inhabitants of Turkey are entitled to freely profess, publicly and privately, every belief, religion or doctrine whose practice will not be detrimental to public order and honourable customs.
Non-muslim minorities will fully enjoy the freedom of circulation and immigration (...).

Article 41
As regards state education, in cities and districts where a considerable non-muslim proportion of subjects resides, the Turkish government will provide to the children of the Turkish subjects in question appropriate facilities to ensure the provision of teaching in their own language in primary schools.