The turmoil of rebellion in Continental Greece did not stop after the foundation of the Greek State. Constant illegal behaviour in the countryside, which was connected to banditry, kept undermining any conformity to the law that people living in the Ottoman provinces of the Greek peninsula showed. Regardless of the reasons, rebellions were connected to the Greek people's wish to be incorporated within the Greek state, and they constituted manifestations of the Eastern Question.
The first important rebellion broke out in Epirus, shortly before the Crimean War, with which it was finally connected. After a period of financial pressure and terrorism, the inhabitants of Radovitsio in Epirus gathered on 15th January 1854 and decided to declare an armed war to '(chase) the Ottoman tyrants from their fathers' land (freeing) the country...', as the proclamation read.
The rebels' victories caused rebellions in other areas of Epirus as well. After that, Greek officers, who traditionally maintained close relations with the area, such as Lieutenant Spyridon Karaiskakis, Major General Theodore Grivas, and volunteers from Greece and Eptanissa, headed the rebellion. Despite their early victories, the rebels were defeated at Skoulikaria in May 1854, and the turmoil ended with the burning of villages in that area and the expulsion of many inhabitants.
Othon's adjutant, Christodoulos Chadjipetros, joined the local rebels of Thessaly from February 1854, while Nicholas Philaretos, a police officer, also took action later at Pilio. Many volunteers from the Peloponnese, Macedonia and Crete joined Chadjipetros. The latter, who won many battles and reached Trikala before having to return to Livadia on 29th June 1854, was cut off from Greece and faced with a lot of enemy reinforcements.
Theodore Ziakas saw action in Western Macedonia; he had to withdraw in May, leaving the province of Grevena, where 'chaos' ensued. It was Tsamis Karatasos, former adjutant to the king, nominated Commander-in-Chief of Macedonia, who took the most vigorous action in April 1854. He disembarked on Chalkidiki, and the French, who feared he would enter Thessaloniki, fired on him as well. After a short occupation of Karyes, Mount Athos, without any provisions or contact with the centre of Athens, he had to leave Mount Athos, along with his few comrades, on a French war ship.
The Powers' consuls took the responsibility of protecting the civilians and native warriors who supported him. Karatasos's failure caused the Macedonian chieftains who had rebelled in the Olympus region to return to Greece.
The Greek state responded to rebellions in a tacit, positive way. Despite submissions to Otto by the ambasssadors of England and France, as well as by Napoleon C, he neither renounced nor punished his rebel officers. The Kapi interrupted its diplomatic relations with Athens (10th March 1854), and the army at the borders was in a state of war fever. In Greece, people were taking action in favour of the war and the king was ready to take all the risks.
From 30th March the ambassadors of England and France formally declared control and seizure of provisions to rebels. Following strict notes, England and France proceeded to the embargo of Greek ports and the military occupation of Piraeus at the beginning of May 1854. This made Otto declare that Greece was non-aligned (14th May 1854) and nominate a government which the occupation powers desired, under Alexander Mavrokordatos.
The new government managed to bring back all rebel officers who had resigned, with strict measures and pressures. Diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire were reinstated after the Treaty of Kanlitzas, in May 1855.
The most tragic consequence of the embargo and occupation, which lasted until February 1857, was a terrible plague which caused many people to die and orphaned many children.