The Geometric is the first of the periods into which ancient Greek history is divided. The year 1125 BC is conventionally taken as its beginning, a period in which, according to the view of many researchers, the migrations of Greek tribes began -the direction being from large parts of mainland Greece towards most of the Aegean islands, the western coast of Asia Minor and Cyprus. These migrations of large populations which lasted until approximately 800 BC, caused political and social reclassifications which have characterized, and to a certain extent determined, the historical fate of Greek populations as late as the Roman conquest.
Since the data available for researchers -up until a few decades ago- were few and fragmentary, and due to the overall decline in the living and cultural level in comparison to the previous Mycenaean Age, the period has been characterized in older bibliographies as the "Dark Age" of Greek history or the "Greek Middle Ages", a view which has been revised in recent years. After the collapse of the Mycenaean centres, the factors that played a decisive role in the further historical course of Greece began, slowly but steadily, to take shape. During the so-called transition period the historical population of Greece was formed by the fusion of Mycenaean population groups and some of the peoples who had invaded Greece. At the same time, the memory of the glorious Mycenaean past, as consolidated in the epic poems, has been preserved. The Greek alphabet derived from the Phoenician, arts were revived, the Greek world expanded to many areas of the Mediterranean -a unified ethnic. Religious and moral consciousness formed among the Greeks and the population of Greece was socially and politically organized on the basis of the institution of the city-state.

| Migrations | Recent theories | Political organization | Ethnic consciousness | Geometric period

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