Zas Cave is situated on the western slope of the mountain of the same name on Naxos, at an altitude of 628 metres. Excavations (1985-1986) in this spacious cave unearthed a settlement which appears to have been inhabited continuously during the Early (Zas I), Final Neolithic (Zas IIa-b) and Early Bronze Age (Early Cycladic I). This is of special importance to chronology and the study of cultural continuity in the Cyclades from the Neolithic to the glorious Early Cycladic Period (3rd millenium BC).

The economy of the cave's inhabitants was based on the cultivation of cereals (barley) and pulses (lentils, beans) and on animal husbandry (sheep and goats). The practice of agriculture has also been confirmed by fragments of sickles of flint and obsidian. Both obsidian and flint reached the cave in the form of cores or finished tools. Among the stone tools, triangular leaf-shaped arrow heads of obsidian as well as blades, denticulates and awls were found.
The pottery of Zas IIa phase consists of characteristic vases of the Final Neolithic (Attica-Kephala culture) with a black burnished surface and white painted, linear patterns. Zas IIb phase is characterized by red rolled rim bowls with horizontal tubular handles. This class of pottery, typical in the northeastern Aegean (Troad and islands) during the late phases of the Neolithic (Chalcolithic), was until recently grouped, due to scarce stratigraphical data from the Cyclades, in the Early Cycladic I (3000-2700 BC). The excavations though at Zas refute with incontestable data this earlier view.

From the layers of the Final Neolithic (Zas IIa-b) 4 axes, needles and pins of copper of special importance for the early metallurgy in the Aegean were unearthed. A rectangular, perforated strip of gold, the oldest find of precious metal in the Cyclades, confirms the participation of the residents of the Cyclades in the extensive networks of cultural exchanges of the Aegean during the Final Neolithic. Similar strips have been found at Aravissos in Macedonia, and are related to those from Varna cemetery, Bulgaria.